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Penn State University Libraries

Penn State University Libraries

Utilizing In-text Citation

Add an in-text citation whenever you relate to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another supply. For every single in-text citation in your paper, there needs to be a matching entry in your guide list.

MLA in-text citation design makes use of mcdougal’s final title plus the web page quantity from where the quote or paraphrase is taken, for instance: (Smith 163). In the event that source will not utilize web page numbers, try not to add a quantity into the parenthetical citation: (Smith).

Example paragraph with in-text citation

A few scientists in the linguistics industry are suffering from training programs made to enhance indigenous speakers’ capability to understand accented message (Derwing et al. 246; Thomas 15). Their training methods derive from the study described above indicating that comprehension improves with experience of non-native message. Derwing and others carried out their training with pupils getting ready to be social employees, but keep in mind that other experts who assist non-native speakers could take advantage of a comparable system (258).


Derwing, Tracey M., et al. “Teaching Native Speakers to be controlled by Foreign-accented Speech.” Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, vol. 23, no. 4, 2002, pp. 245-259.

Thomas, Holly K. Training Techniques For Improving Audience’ Comprehension of Foreign-accented Speech. University of Colorado, Boulder, 2004.

Citing Webpages In Text

Cite website pages in text while you would just about any source, making use of the writer if understood. In the event that writer isn’t understood, make use of the name since the citation that is in-text.

Your in-text citation should lead your audience towards the matching entry in the guide list. Listed weebly here are types of making use of in-text citation with webpages.

Whole internet site with author: In-text citation moms and dads perform a crucial role in helping kids discover processes for handling bullying (Kraiser).

Guide entry Kraizer, Sherryll. Safe Child. Coalition for Children, 2011,

Web site without any writer: In-text citation The expression Nittany Lion ended up being created by Penn State football player Joe Mason in 1904 (” all plain things Nittany”).

Guide entry ” all plain things Nittany.” About Penn State. Penn State University, 2006,

General Gu >

In MLA style the writer’s title is included in a choice of the narrative text of the paper, or in parentheses after the mention of the origin.

Author’s name element of narrative:

Gass and Varonis unearthed that the essential element that is important understanding non-native message is understanding of this issue (163).

Author’s title in parentheses:

One study discovered that the essential crucial take into account understanding non-native message is understanding of this issue (Gass and Varonis 163).

Group as writer: (United states Psychological Association 123)

Multiple works: (split each ongoing utilize semi-colons)

Studies have shown that hearing a specific accent improves comprehension of accented message as a whole (Gass and Varonis 143; Thomas 24).

Direct estimate:

One research unearthed that “the listener’s knowledge of the main topics discourse significantly facilitates the interpretation regarding the whole message” (Gass and Varonis 85).

Gass and Varonis discovered that “the listener’s understanding of the main topic of discourse significantly facilitates the interpretation of this entire message” (85).

Note: For quotations which are significantly more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, display quotations as a block that is indented of (one inch from remaining margin) and omit quote markings. Put your parenthetical citation at the conclusion regarding the block of text, following the last punctuation mark.

Along with awareness-raising, exercising listening to accented speech has been confirmed to boost comprehension that is listening. This informative article advises developing training that is listening for collection faculty and staff, according to research through the linguistics and language training industries. Also brief experience of accented message often helps audience enhance their comprehension, therefore enhancing the amount of solution to worldwide clients. (O’Malley 19)

Functions by Multiple Authors

Whenever citing functions by numerous writers, constantly spell the word “and out.” Each time a supply has three or higher authors, just the very first one shown into the source is generally provided followed closely by et al.

One author: (Field 399)

Functions Cited entry: Field, John. “Intelligibility plus the Listener: The part of Lexical Stress.” TESOL Quarterly, vol. 39, number 3, 2005, pp. 399-423.

Two authors: (Gass and Varonis 67)

Functions Cited entry: Gass, Susan, and Evangeline M. Varonis. “The aftereffect of Familiarity from the Comprehensibility of Nonnative Speech.” Language Learning, vol. 34, no. 1, 1984, pp. 65-89.

Three or maybe more writers: (Munro et al. 70)

Functions Cited entry: Munro, Murray J., et al. “Salient Accents, Covert Attitudes: Consciousness-raising for Pre-service 2nd Language Teachers.” Prospect, vol. 21, # 1, 2006, pp. 67-79.

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